Comparing the physical properties of stainless steel and carbon steel, the density of carbon steel is slightly higher than that of ferrite and martensitic stainless steel, and slightly lower than that of austenitic stainless steel; the resistivity is carbon steel, ferrite type, martensite type. The order of austenitic stainless steel is increasing; the order of linear expansion coefficient is similar, the austenitic stainless steel is the highest and the carbon steel is the smallest; the carbon steel, ferritic and martensitic stainless steel are magnetic, and the austenitic stainless steel is non-magnetic. However, when it undergoes cold work hardening to form a nano-phase transformation, magnetism will be generated, and the martensite structure can be removed by heat treatment to restore its non-magnetic property. Compared with carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel has the following characteristics:
1) High electricity rate, about 5 times that of carbon steel.
2) The large coefficient of linear expansion is 40% larger than that of carbon steel, and as the temperature increases, the coefficient of linear expansion coefficient of stainless steel screws increases accordingly.
3) Low thermal conductivity, about 1/3 of carbon steel.
Regardless of stainless steel screws or heat-resistant steel sheets, austenitic steel sheets have the best overall performance, and have sufficient strength, excellent plasticity and low hardness, which is one of the reasons why they are widely used. Austenitic stainless steels are similar to most other metallic materials. Their tensile strength, yield strength and hardness increase with decreasing temperature; plasticity decreases with decreasing temperature. Its tensile strength is relatively uniform in the temperature range of 15~80 °C. More importantly: stainless steel screws have a slow reduction in impact toughness with decreasing temperature and no brittle transition temperature. Therefore, stainless steel maintains sufficient plasticity and toughness at low temperatures.
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